At COP23, Decision –CP/23 invited parties and observers to submit their views on elements to be included in the joint SBSTA-SBI work that is now known as the “Koronivia Joint Work on Agriculture” (KJWA). Topics for consideration included but were not limited to: a) Modalities for implementation of the outcomes of the five in-session workshops; b) Methods and approaches for assessing adaptation, adaptation co-benefits and resilience; c) Improved soil carbon, soil health and soil fertility under grassland and cropland as well as integrated systems, including water management; d) Improved nutrient use and manure management towards sustainable and resilient agricultural systems; e) Improved livestock management systems; f) Socioeconomic and food security dimensions of climate change in the agricultural sector.
CAN’s submission addresses these questions through the following structure: Part One responds to question a) under the heading “Modalities and Procedures” with the purpose of shaping the KJWA mode of working to be effective, rigorous and relevant; Part Two responds to questions b) to f) under the heading “Technical Content” with the purpose of sharing CAN members’ knowledge and expertise on technical issues related to agriculture and climate change.
If the shipping sector were a country, it would have the 7th largest CO2 emissions in the world. Official IMO projections suggest that without further action shipping emissions will increase by 50-250% by 2050. On this basis shipping could be responsible for 17% of all emissions by 2050. This points to how critical it is for shipping to contribute its fair share towards achievement of the 1.5°C goal. To be in line with the goals of the Paris agreement, annual emissions must be peaked in the immediate future and quickly reduced thereafter.
An important first step in the road to creating a decarbonized fleet is a clear political commitment to do so in an appropriate time frame, meaning absolute emission will have to drop to zero by 2050 at the latest. In addition to agreeing to decarbonise by mid-century, immediate measures will be needed to peak emissions in the short term including regulating ship speed - slow steaming - and strengthening the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI). Following the establishment of short term measures, longer term measures will be needed to establish an effective carbon price for the sector, including a maritime fund. Any ambition gap left behind after the IMO has acted will need to be filled by states, acting either nationally, bilaterally or regionally.
The aviation sector is a top-ten global emitter whose emissions are expected to rise dramatically by mid-century. Under current scenarios, the aviation sector could emit 56 GtCO2 over the period 2016-2050, or one-quarter of the remaining carbon budget.1 It is critical that the global aviation sector contribute its fair share towards achieving a 1.5°C future. Aviation, therefore, needs to immediately start to reduce its in-sector emissions, then rapidly reduce its emissions and fully decarbonize toward the second half of this century. In addition to the sector’s CO2 emissions, aviation’s non-CO2 effects need to be addressed. Aviation emissions are 2.1% of the global share, but when non-CO2 effects are included, aviation contributes an estimated 4.9% to the global warming problem. Hence, the global aviation sector must have both zero CO2 emissions and zero non-CO2 effects on the climate by the end of the century.
National governments, subnational governments, the aviation industry, international institutions, the private sector, and civil society must do more to harness viable technological and policy solutions to sharply reduce the sector’s emissions by 2050 and fully decarbonize within the second half of the century. While current policy measures set by governments are a step forward to addressing aviation’s runaway emissions, they are woefully insufficient to achieve necessary levels of deep decarbonization within the sector.
While many stakeholders have a role to play in the aviation industry’s decarbonization, bold government action will, in the end, define whether the aviation sector is able to contribute its fair share to ensure a 1.5°C future. A methodical next step for governments—at the subnational, national, regional and international level—is to set long-term decarbonization pathways for aviation that are compatible with the Paris Agreement and a roadmap to adhere to these pathways. The elements of a roadmap for aviation’s decarbonization include:
- Deploying near-term technology solutions (efficiency and operational measures and alternative fuels with lower lifecycle emissions than fossil jet fuel);
- Addressing non-CO2 effects through mitigation measures;
- Investing in transformative, breakthrough clean aviation technologies;
- Strengthening the Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA);
- Strengthening the ICAO CO2 standard;
- Revisiting aviation subsidies;
- Developing new mobility solutions to support modal shift;
- Creating new business models for the aviation industry;
- Climate-proofing aviation against the effects of a changing climate; and
- Ensuring compatibility with the Paris Agreement.
During the week of 26th of February 2018, CAN with a number of partners (Mission2020, Climate Works, 350.org, GCCA, GSCC, and others) convened the 2018 Global Climate Strategy Sessions in Bangkok.
More than 100 members and partners participated in the various sessions over the course of the five days. These meetings were key to share common priorities and develop detailed action plans and activities for 2018 and 2019-2020.
- On day 1, we focused on the UNFCCC and the G20 Strategy.
- On day 2, we presented the political strategy, timelines and priorities of the Step Up campaign for 2018, and then went into deep dives to discuss key country strategies and action plans for the political moments including the Commonwealth summit, Global Climate Action Summit, the IPCC 1.5°C report and the CVF+ summit.
- On day 3, we looked into plans for 2019-2020 including the UN Secretary General's summit in September 2019.
- On day 4, we convened the RE100 Task Force to discuss the 100% Renewable campaign and also started planning the GCAS public mobilization.
- On day 5, the Croissant Communicators' group met to develop the communications strategy and plans for the year.
WEBINAR: You can listen to a recording of the webinar that was organised on 21 March to follow up on updates and key action points from the climate strategy meetings. Please click to listen.
PRESENTATIONS: You can view the slides from the presentations on each of the sessions.
For more information please contact, Francois Rogers, Head of Communications, CAN, at email@example.com
Friends of Talanoa Dialogue Briefing: Considerations for Submission of Inputs to the Talanoa Dialogue
This memo was prepared by the Friends of Talanoa Dialogue, a number of civil society organisations and think tanks, including Climate Action Network, World Resources Institute, IDDRI, Mission 2020, ICLEI, Stockholm Environment Institute, Blavatnik School of Government Oxford University, International Institute for Environment and Development and C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group.
A broad range of stakeholders have the opportunity to feed directly into the Talanoa Dialogue through submissions, participating in the May session of the Dialogue (6 May 2018), and convening events in support of the Dialogue. The Talanoa Dialogue focuses on answering three core questions: (1) Where are we? (2) Where do we want to go? and (3) How do we get there?
Submissions from both Parties and non-Party stakeholders can play a key role in highlighting key issues related to the need, gaps and opportunities for action, including the role played by non-Party stakeholders and the potential for strengthened action and increased ambition from countries. Submissions should speak to what the submitting Party can contribute or action they will undertake.
Given the breadth of potential inputs, the information submitted is likely to be substantial and covering a broad range of topics. Therefore, there is value in providing succinct, targeted submissions that respond directly to the three questions and can advance the conversation and contribute to the purpose of the Talanoa Dialogue – enhancing ambition and informing the next round of NDCs in 2020.
Below are suggestions for content and messages that could be highlighted or provided in submissions for each question. Inputs can be in the form of quantitative evidence, stories of specific examples or experiences, or forward-looking proposals that highlight new opportunities to increase action and ambition. In each case, submissions are likely to have a greater impact if they are given a clear message and framing.
Where are we?
• Temperature rise has already reached 1°C and the impacts from climate change are already being felt. Identify climate impacts specific to your sector, country or region. Present also the “human side” of these impacts, as well as economic and infrastructure costs.
• Current NDCs and trajectories of emissions put the world on course for temperature rise greater than 1.5 and 2C (NDCs cover only approximately one third of the emissions reductions needed to be on a least-cost pathway for the goal of staying well below 2°C).
• If the emissions gap is not closed by 2030, it is extremely unlikely that the goal of holding global warming to well below 2°C can still be reached.
• At current rates of emissions, the carbon budget for 2C will be 80% depleted by 2030.
• Peaking emissions by 2020 is urgently needed to keep the window to 1.5C open. Need for emissions to peak by 2020, assessments on peaking of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in specific countries, and what national commitments imply for an emissions peak in the future
• Identify emissions levels and trajectories in key sectors.
• Early progress is being made that can be scaled (also relevant for question #3). Outline progress being made in your sector (e.g. falling costs, new technologies available), country (e.g. expected over achievement of target), subnational jurisdiction (e.g. new economy wide or sectoral targets), or region. Emphasize already achieved emissions reductions, not just ambitious
• Levels of finance and investment needed and available for climate-appropriate action. Evidence
that some financial flows are beginning to shift, but financial support for fossil fuels is still at
• Emphasize “positive” changes we are already seeing in the world (e.g. rapid cost reduction in
renewables, job creation by renewables, co-benefits of adaptation measures i.e., health
impacts, jobs and innovation).
Where do we want to go?
• Describe the emissions reductions and mitigation actions needed, including for specific sectors and sources of emissions, to achieve goals of the Paris Agreement. This can include short-term, medium-term and long-term objectives in the context of achieving the Paris goals.
• Describe the adaptation and resilience actions needed for a safe future. Integrated adaptation and mitigation policies/strategies/actions are also recommendable to highlight here.
• Share a vision of the future you want to see for the sector, constituency or geography you represent and for the world as a whole.
• Describe the transformational change needed in order to achieve the Paris goals, including shifts in finance and investment, sustainable consumption and production, resilience, etc.
• Describe the enabling policies needed from national governments to unlock greater ambition and action at their level as well as from other actors, including business, investors, sub-national governments and private individuals.
• Outline a vision for economic growth, investment, jobs, energy security, health, and quality of life that greater and integrated climate action could bring.
• Outline a vision for a just transition to ensure that no one gets left behind.
How do we get there?
• Strengthened action in enhanced NDCs, along with national-level implementation and non-state action, are needed to move the world toward a trajectory in line with well below 2C and 1.5C.
• Significant opportunities for strengthened action and ambition exist; identify opportunities for specific sectors, sources of emissions, geographies, etc. Specific proposals are helpful, particularly if there are already existing initiatives/programmes that can be scaled up, or that new participants can join. For example, “If 5 more countries joined our initiative, the effect would be…”
• Climate action can provide substantial development and economic benefits; describe evidence of the benefits of climate action in specific sectors and geographies and for specific sources o emissions.
• Identify sectors or sources of emissions that weren’t included in initial NDCs or need strengthening. (e.g. short-lived climate pollutants, oceans and marine ecosystems, urban
planning). Quantify what their inclusion would mean in terms of greenhouse gas emission reduction and other development or economic benefits (e.g. fiscal benefits of fossil fuel subsidy eform).
• Identify specific recent technological and economic shifts and/or breakthroughs (e.g. battery storage, electric vehicles, green infrastructure for adaptation, etc.) that can serve as the basis
for enhanced action. (underlying assumptions have changed since the NDCs were firs developed. Identification of what these are (e.g. falling price of renewables, advancements in
battery storage, new policy options) and how this impacts the models used to develop the targets in current NDCs.
• Identify new initiatives that have been launched to support implementation or provide new avenues for cooperation and enhanced action. Specify how others can join such initiatives and therefore enhance action or ambition.
• Non-Party stakeholders are making ambitious commitments and taking significant action across multiple sectors; these actions can provide bolster and support enhanced national policies and
• National dialogues between governments and non-party stakeholders can unlock new opportunities for action. National governments are receiving new technical tools like ICAT to help them understand and measure how non-party stakeholders are already helping them deliver their current NDCs, and providing a methodology to integrate non-party stakeholder commitments into their next round of NDCs.
• Collaboration among countries through finance, technology and capacity could unlock the potential of those countries, which lead to enhance NDCs. If any, state possible examples. Equity and fairness should be reflected in such processes.
• Describe how enhancing climate action will further the advancement of the SDGs.
• Describe the importance of achieving equity and fairness that leads to reinforcing ambition.
The 16th Informal Meeting on Further Actions Against Climate Change or the Japan-Brazil Informal Meeting provides an opportunity for key Parties to initiate the critical discussions that need to happen in 2018 and agree on important issues ahead of the UNFCCC intersessions in April. Climate Action Network provides this Briefing outlining its top line expectations for 2018 with the view of guiding the Ministers at this Meeting.
The prevalence of extreme weather events and climate impacts experienced all over the world in 2017 - hurricanes in the Caribbean, heavy floods in South Asia, floods and droughts in Africa, droughts and rising sea levels in the Pacific, changing rainfall including flooding in South America - make it very clear that we have no time to waste. The most vulnerable people in the frontlines of climate change require finance for loss and damage urgently.
It is essential that the review of the Warsaw Mechanism for Loss and Damage (WIM) at the 25th Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP 25) in 2019 results in the full operationalisation of the WIM. This will be achieved by establishing a finance arm, with modalities for channelling and accessing loss and damage finance by the 2019 review from a clear menu of options developed by the WIM and the Standing Committee on Finance (SCF). We cannot lose more time in delaying meaningful discussions with the rapidly increasing and worsening climate change impacts that are being felt across the globe. CAN urges all countries to proactively and positively engage in these discussions.
The WIM Executive Committee (ExCom) and the SCF will need to undertake additional work over 2018 and 2019 to develop and discuss the concepts necessary to achieve this. Ample focus must be given to this task, comparable to all other elements of their respective workplans. It is essential for the Subsidiary Bodies and the COP to consider progress on loss and damage finance at each meeting.