G20 Issue Brief: Sustainable Infrastructure

The additional up-front investment required for a sustainable infrastructure pathway by 2030 is estimated at less than 5% above baseline levels, and is very likely to be more than “offset” by the resulting energy and fuel savings from modern clean energy and energy efficiency, with large additional benefits resulting from avoided climate impacts and air pollution related health costs, as well as reduced risk of stranded assets. Present externalities of and subsidies to burning fossil fuels amount to a staggering 6.5% of global GDP.