Tag: Loss and Damage

CAN Annual Policy Document, Executive Summary: Katowice - Spurring the Paris Agreement to Action, November 2018

The IPCC report on 1.5°C is a siren alerting humanity to the urgency of the climate crisis. The report shows even half a degree of warming makes a huge difference in terms of impacts; more than was previously known. It also shows that, already, some communities and ecosystems are being forced beyond the limits of adaptation. The report further demonstrates the tools needed to meet the Paris Agreement goal of limiting warming to 1.5°C are within the scope of science and human capability. It is economically and technically feasible, but we need political will right now.

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CAN Annual Policy Document, Full Version: Katowice - Spurring the Paris Agreement to Action, November 2018

The IPCC report on 1.5°C is a siren alerting humanity to the urgency of the climate crisis. The report shows even half a degree of warming makes a huge difference in terms of impacts; more than was previously known. It also shows that, already, some communities and ecosystems are being forced beyond the limits of adaptation. The report further demonstrates the tools needed to meet the Paris Agreement goal of limiting warming to 1.5°C are within the scope of science and human capability. It is economically and technically feasible, but we need political will right now.

2018 brought together numerous leaders from states and regions, cities, business, investors and civil society at the Global Climate Action Summit (GCAS), to underline the transformational action they are already pursuing. The Virtual Climate Summit convened by the vulnerable countries reinforced efforts to fight climate change in solidarity with all those facing this threat on the frontline. The baton has now been passed on to all governments.

This year, Parties engaged in a facilitative dialogue (Talanoa Dialogue) to take stock of the collective efforts towards the Paris Agreement’s long-term goal and to inform Parties on the preparation to update their Nationally

Determined Contributions. The Talanoa Dialogue also considered pre-2020 action and support. At COP24, during the High-level Ministerial Talanoa Dialogue, governments will commit to step-up their national ambition and review and enhance their NDCs by 2020.

Tools for implementation are essential for enhanced implementation of climate action. Predictable, sustainable and transparent finance — both public and private — is at the core of climate action and it is necessary for developing countries to fully implement their NDCs and instill trust in the Paris regime.

Clarity on the delivery of finance is vital. The Green Climate Fund board meeting in October agreed to a replenishment process in 2019 and sent a clear signal that the fund is back on track with a commitment to deliver US$1 billion for climate action in developing countries. At COP24 we need additional signals and concrete agreements on predictability and accountability to make the Paris Agreement work. The Paris Agreement is a promise to the people that governments will take collective climate action to protect us. At this year’s United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of the Parties (COP 24) governments are working towards a December 2018 deadline to adopt the key elements of the implementation guidelines to operationalize the Paris Agreement. The Agreement is the most collaborative piece of legislation in human history and it has sparked real hope. This year is the time to embrace multilateralism and spur the Paris Agreement into action by agreeing on robust, fair and cohesive rules. The rules will expand on the Paris Agreements ability to act as a foundation for countries’ collective action to tackle climate change and to increase ambition over time.

At COP 24, Parties to the UNFCCC must realize the vision of Paris by:

• Agreeing on a robust, fair and cohesive set of implementation guidelines to solidify the Paris regime and a roadmap to finalize outstanding issues;

• Stepping up and committing to enhancing their NDCs by 2020 in line with climate science;

• Reaffirming their climate finance commitments, agree to robust accounting standards and concrete ways to enhance predictability of funds from the contributor countries. Several elements will be necessary to enable both immediate and longer-term action:

 

RAISING AMBITION FOR THE PROTECTION OF PEOPLE AND PLANET:

• Informed by the IPCC Special Report on 1.5°C, the Talanoa Dialogue must send a strong signal to step-up climate ambition: through a COP Decision recalling paragraph 23 and 24 of Decision 1/CP.21 to enhance current NDCs by 2020; taking into account the discussions and outputs of the Talanoa Dialogue in the process of updating their NDCs and reflecting progression over time; and through a Co-Chairs of the process report on the Pathways to Action outlining specific and actionable key steps, responding to each of the questions raised in the Dialogue separate from a more technical summary by the UNFCCC Secretariat;

• While urgent action is required to avoid the worst impacts the vulnerable countries already face severe damages and displacement that require urgent support. Five years after the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage (WIM) was established at COP19, it is time to fully operationalize it. COP 24 must deliver highlevel guidance for the review of the WIM in 2019, including a need-assessment for loss and damage finance.

SUPPORT FOR ACTION TO ENABLE INCREASED AMBITION:

• Contributor countries should strongly reaffirm the collective commitment to scale up climate finance to $100bn per year by 2020, and back it up with concrete commitments, including the reaffirmation of their commitment to the GCF through sending political signals towards an ambitious replenishment and agree on accounting rules for climate finance which are robust and provide full transparency on actual assistance provided to developing countries for mitigation, adaptation and L&D. This needs to include agreement on accounting rules which ensure contributor countries report grant equivalent amounts for loans and other non-grant instruments; that non-concessional instruments are not counted as climate finance; and that only the climate-specific part of finance provided is counted.

• To make climate finance more predictable, countries shall fully operationalize Article 9.5 of the Paris Agreement. It requires that Parties at CMA1-3 agree on a process to provide qualitative and quantitative information in accordance to all sections of this article. All contributor countries should agree to provide similar types of ex-ante information for every channel and source to ensure comparability and coherence, including a timeline and the format for submissions.

• Parties must agree to discuss the post-2025 finance goal in a structured, inclusive and balanced way. At COP24, the APA should recommend that the CMA1 adopt a process to discuss this goal and ensure sufficient time for Parties and observers to provide input. This process should include a clear timeline for the agreement of the target and should welcome technical and scientific inputs from all bodies of the Financial Mechanism of the Convention, including an updated needs assessment and review of past climate finance and its effectiveness.

• COP24 must achieve a Technology Framework which ensures the focus of technology development and transfer is on the most climate vulnerable populations, achieving a balance in addressing adaptation and mitigation technology support. The Periodic Assessment must stipulate that the bodies of the Technology Mechanism collect data to assess its impact on technology development and transfer and contribution towards achieving the goals of the Paris Agreement.

PRESERVING THE SPIRIT OF PARIS BY AGREEING ON ROBUST AND FAIR RULES:

A core set of robust and enforceable guidelines — that build on and enhance the existing systems of transparency — will be critical to ensure trust and drive ambition:

• For transparency of action, it is essential that accurate and robust information is provided by Parties in a methodological manner concerning efforts on greenhouse gas inventories, NDC implementation and achievement, adaptation, finance, and allowing for non-state actors to contribute to the framework;

• Flexibility under the Enhanced Transparency Framework should be reflected in each element of the Enhanced Transparency Framework and be used as an enabling vehicle allowing progression over time. Parties should agree on minimum floors for the frequency, scope, and level of detail provided as well as guidelines for how flexibility is applied.

• Parties should adopt constructive guidelines for NDCs, including guidance for features of the NDCs, for the information in the NDCs to facilitate their clarity, transparency, and understanding, as well as for the accounting used in the NDCs. Guidance should include an invitation for Parties to provide information regarding how rights-related considerations, including a gender perspective, have informed the planning of the NDC. Such guidance may be differentiated, but not bifurcated.

• Develop accounting guidance based on inventory reporting under the Convention for REDD+ and LULUCF well before 2020.

• Any transfer of international emissions reductions should help to enhance ambition of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). At COP 24, parties should phase out the Kyoto Protocol’s flexible mechanisms and not recognize Kyoto emissions units for compliance with non-Kyoto mitigation commitments.

• In their transfers of international emissions reductions, Parties should avoid all forms of double counting as well as support and encourage all Parties to move toward economy-wide emission targets as called for in Article 4.4 of the Paris Agreement.

ROBUSTNESS OF THE PARIS AGREEMENT NOW AND OVER TIME:

• Parties need to decide on a single five-year common time frame for NDC implementation at COP24 in line with Article 4.1 of the Paris Agreement to enhance consistency and comparability of NDCs as well as better harness rapidly evolving real-world opportunities and incentivize early action and enable the best synchronization with the Paris climate regime.

• Parties need to finalize the general design of the Global Stocktake (GST) at COP 24. To serve its purpose, to ratchet-up ambition, the design needs to include the following elements:
– sufficient duration of 18-24 months, wherein some phases (e.g. input gathering and technical consideration) can overlap.
– the GST should be organized in workstreams oriented towards the three long-term goals of the Paris Agreement in Article 2 (temperature, resilience, and finance flows) and include a workstream on loss and damage.
– additionally, means of implementation (finance, technology, and capacity building) should be considered a cross-cutting issue of these workstreams.
– for the stocktake to be “conducted in the light of equity” means to treat equity as an overarching issue across all work streams and with regards to the design of the GST.

• Submit long-term greenhouse gas emission development strategies in line with Article 4.19 of the Agreement to transitioning to a future that is compatible with the long-term goals of the Paris Agreement and Just Transition.

ADVANCING WORK BEYOND THE PARIS AGREEMENT WORK PROGRAM:

• The work of the Koronivia Joint Work on Agriculture (KJWA) must enable Parties and other actors to take action that builds adaptive capacity and resilience, contributes to the equitable achievement of the Paris Agreement’s 1.5°C goal, and safeguards food security, the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities, gender equality, environmental integrity, and human rights.

• COP24 must now finalize the effective operationalization of the Local Communities and Indigenous Peoples Platform, learning from good practices in other multilateral forums and collectively agreed principles as well as providing it with adequate resources to perform its work.

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CAN Submission on the Scope of the Technical Paper Exploring Sources of Support for Loss and Damage and Modalities for Accessing Support, February 2018

The prevalence of extreme weather events and climate impacts experienced all over the world in 2017 - hurricanes in the Caribbean, heavy floods in South Asia, floods and droughts in Africa, droughts and rising sea levels in the Pacific, changing rainfall including flooding in South America - make it very clear that we have no time to waste.  The most vulnerable people in the frontlines of climate change require finance for loss and damage urgently. 

It is essential that the review of the Warsaw Mechanism for Loss and Damage (WIM) at the 25th Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP 25) in 2019 results in the full operationalisation of the WIM. This will be achieved by establishing a finance arm, with modalities for channelling and accessing loss and damage finance by the 2019 review from a clear menu of options developed by the WIM and the Standing Committee on Finance (SCF). We cannot lose more time in delaying meaningful discussions with the rapidly increasing and worsening climate change impacts that are being felt across the globe. CAN urges all countries to proactively and positively engage in these discussions.

The WIM Executive Committee (ExCom) and the SCF will need to undertake additional work over 2018 and 2019 to develop and discuss the concepts necessary to achieve this.  Ample focus must be given to this task, comparable to all other elements of their respective workplans.  It is essential for the Subsidiary Bodies and the COP to consider progress on loss and damage finance at each meeting.

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CAN Annual Policy Document: Pacific COP - Solidarity and Action to Realize the Promise of Paris, October 2017

At COP  23, Parties to the UNFCCC must realize the vision of Paris by making substantial progress on all agenda items under the Paris Agreement Work Programme. The development of a zero draft of the implementation guidelines, in form of a text, will be a key milestone to measure success. COP 23 must also lay the ground, in form of a roadmap, for a successful facilitative dialogue in 2018 to assess collective progress towards the goals of the Paris Agreement and indications of implications for revised NDCs.

Several elements will be necessary for creating the right conditions for enabling both immediate and longer-term action:

Raising Ambition to Avoid Increasing Impacts:

  • The Ambition Mechanism consists of three elements: a facilitative “Talanoa dialogue” in 2018 (FD2018), to assess collective progress against a 1.5°C pathway and to increase ambition thereafter, a second periodic review to translate science into policy, and a global stocktake to increase ambition every 5 years. Comprehensive progress must be made in the design of these elements at COP 23 to ensure they fulfil the potential for raising ambition that they embody.
  • Loss and Damage: CAN believes that the first Pacific COP is a unique opportunity for the WIM to fully implement its mandate. This includes generating and providing finance for loss and damage, including from innovative sources, adopting a stronger five-year workplan for the WIM than the one the ExCom approved in October, mandating the WIM and SCF to elaborate modalities for clear and transparent accounting of finance for loss and damage, and providing adequate finance to implement the mandate of the WIM.
  • Adaptation: Adaptation must be part of the ambition mechanism. In order to make that happen, clear guidelines for adaptation communications need to be adopted by 2018 and the Global Goal on Adaptation needs to be operationalized. A more comprehensive review of the institutional arrangements on adaptation, including National Adaptation Plans (NAPs), must also be initiated to determine if they are fit-for-purpose.
  • Agriculture: To enhance the implementation of the Paris Agreement and to identify and catalyze action to address gaps in knowledge, research, action and support, a joint SBSTA/SBI Work Programme on Agriculture and Food Security should be established by COP 23.

Support for Action to Enable Increased Ambition:

  • Finance: COP 23 should result in progress towards ramping up climate finance to US$100 billion a year by 2020 to be increased by 2025, progress in mobilizing private finance in developing countries, and improved transparency of finance mobilized and provided. The imbalance between mitigation and adaptation finance should also be recognized and lead to increased adaptation finance and confirmation that the Adaptation Fund will serve the Agreement.
  • Technology: The Technology Framework must ensure support for climate technology towards the goal of successfully implementing NDCs. To this end, the periodic assessment must include metrics and indicators that will enable countries to make informed choices and predict the needs of developing countries for transformational technologies.

Transparency of Action and Support:

  • Enhanced Transparency Framework: A core set of robust and enforceable guidelines that build on and enhance the existing systems of transparency, towards a common framework, is critical in driving ambition. The modalities, procedures and guidelines (MPGs) should ensure that accurate and sufficient qualitative and quantitative information on adaptation, finance, policies and measures, and projections are submitted by Parties.
    • Transparency of Action: MPGs must include transparency of mitigation and adaptation and should be broad enough to account for different NDC types towards providing up-to-date and relevant information to the global stocktake.
    • Transparency of Support: Key concepts of modalities for accounting climate finance must be identified at COP 23, including further guidance on how to report on non-financial support. Support should be provided to developing countries that will enable them to comply with common standards of the transparency framework.
    • Flexibility in the Transparency Framework: CAN encourages Parties to recognize flexibility in different ways for countries that need it while at the same time encourages Parties to make MPGs that could be implemented by all Parties that will ensure maximum levels of detail, accuracy, and comparability.
  • Accounting for Agriculture Forestry and other Land Use (AFOLU): CAN believes that it is essential that all Parties account for emissions and removals from AFOLU in all land use sectors in a comparable and transparent way using the methodologies provided in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines and NDC-consistent base years measured using agreed methodologies.
  • Accounting for International Transfers: CAN believes that any transfer of international units should help enhance ambition of NDCs. This can be done by ensuring that the guidelines for Article 6 avoid double counting and are in line with the goals of transparency, enhanced ambition, environmental integrity, human rights, and sustainable development.
  • Accounting for International Shipping and Aviation: Parties should urgently take action through national, bilateral, regional and multilateral measures to reduce transport emissions and ensure that the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) give adequate account of measures and efforts in the FD2018. Parties should also include information on bunker fuel burn and relevant transport work in their NDCs and ensure that the use of any mitigation outcomes guarantees environmental integrity and is not double counted.

 

Robustness of the Paris Agreement Now and Over Time:

  • Long-Term Strategies and Action Agenda: To encourage increased ambition and early adoption of low-carbon pathways, all countries should come forward with long-term strategies as soon as possible, following a fully participatory planning process with G20 countries leading the way and submitting well before 2020. Strategies should include countries’ planned peak years, the year they expect to achieve a balance of sources and sinks, and details of conditions or support needed. Limiting global warming to 1.5°C will require urgent, ramping up of pre-2020 action on mitigation, adaptation, and means of implementation.
  • Civil Society Participation: Fijian “talanoa” spirit should serve the Parties with a longer-term framework for fruitful and balanced deliberations. In particular, active civil society participation should be guaranteed during the FD2018 process, the development of guidelines for the global stocktake, the transparency framework, deliberations on Article 6 and in the development and implementation of long-term strategies.
  • Gender Action Plan and Indigenous People’s Platform: This year the Gender Action Plan should be adopted and the Local Communities and Indigenous People’s Platform should be made operational to ensure that those that may be victims of climate change are being empowered
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CAN-Bond Joint Submission on the Strategic Workstream on Loss and Damage Action and Support, February 2017

Climate Action Network International (CAN) and Bond Development and Environment Group welcome the call by COP 22 to propose possible activities for the five-year rolling work plan of the Executive Committee. This submission outlines proposed activities for the specific strategic workstream on enhancing action and support, including finance, technology and capacity-building, as mandated by decision 3/CP.22.

The founding document of the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage (WIM), agreed at COP 19 in 2013, identified the facilitation and mobilisation of support as a priority. The first three years of the WIM focused on its other functions of: a) enhancing knowledge; and, b) strengthening dialogue and coordination. Thereby the WIM laid important groundwork, on which key conclusions for the way forward still need to be drawn. However, now it is time to address the more difficult areas which have lacked attention, including e.g. climate-related migration, but in particular action and support. In light of the growing loss and damage actually happening, we propose that the WIM should treat finance as a priority for the coming two years - dedicating as much time and resources to the finance (support) workstream as to the other work streams combined. The ExCom should identify the objectives and key activities to reach across 2017 and 2018 as outlined below. Though the 5-year work plan is expected to run into 2021, CAN regards it as crucial to make an ambitious start and deliver activities which make a difference on the ground as soon as possible, and not only by 2021.  

Whilst estimates of loss and damage finance needs vary, it is clear that needs are already high and likely to grow. Studies indicate that by mid-century economic global losses and damages costs may exceed $1 trillion per year, with developing countries shouldering the majority of the burden. These loss and damage costs are on top of the costs of adaptation.[1] In this context, and given the WIM mandate to facilitate and mobilise support, the overall objective of this workstream should be to urgently generate finance from predictable, adequate and sustainable sources at a scale of billions of dollars to address loss and damage in developing countries before 2020, and growing after 2020, at a scale sufficient to address the problem over and above the finance provided for adaptation. This will require enhancing the understanding of the nature, types and scales of finance developing countries require. It should also lead to enhanced support for addressing loss and damage immediately and in the near-term, in particular for the poorest and most vulnerable populations.

We propose the following activities for the finance-related work stream as part of the 5-year rolling work plan. Where necessary, this may involve the work of other bodies such as the Standing Committee on Finance, however in an effective manner which does not slow down urgently needed progress on raising funds. Many of these activities should be kick-started as early as possible, at the forthcoming ExCom5 meeting (March 2017).

 

CAN Submission: Input to SCF Forum on Financial Instruments for Loss and Damage, February 2016

~~Climate Action Network (CAN) International sees an important role for the SCF Forum to discuss financial instruments to address loss and damage and is grateful for the opportunity to provide inputs on the scope and purpose of the Forum and also to provide relevant information as well as case studies to inform the Forum.

CAN believes that finance for loss and damage should pay particular attention on how loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change affects particularly vulnerable developing countries, vulnerable populations and the ecosystems that they depend on, and how approaches to address loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change can be designed and implemented to benefit these populations.

 

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CAN Submission: The Workplan of The Warsaw International Mechanism on Loss & Damage, June 2013

 

CAN International’s working group on adaptation and loss & damage welcomes the invitation by the ExCom of the Warsaw International Mechanism (WIM) on Loss and Damage to submit suggestions for the work plan of the WIM for 2015 and 2016, which the ExCom is tasked to prepare for approval by COP20.

CAN stressed the importance of meaningfully addressing loss and damage in previous inputs to the UNFCCC process, including recently on the ADP and in policy positions related to COP18 and COP19. Increasing mitigation ambition and rapidly scaling up adaptation action in order to reduce the avoidable loss and damage as soon as possible is crucial. But this will no longer be enough due to decades of inadequate mitigation action by developed countries. In addition to this, approaches must be developed to deal with the unavoidable loss and damage and residual impacts caused by sea level rise, ocean acidification, loss of biodiversity, glacial retreat and other climate change impacts.

CAN is of the view that the initial establishment of the WIM must now be followed-up with an ambitious while realistic work plan. This work plan must allow using 2015 and 2016 for building up the WIM into an operational mechanism aiming to make a real difference for vulnerable people and countries in their efforts to manage the increasing loss and damage associated with climate change impacts.

Members of CAN have also participated in the initial meeting of the ExCom and followed and contributed to the discussions in the March meeting. The below suggestions for key areas of work reflect our views of priorities the WIM should pursue in the next two years. It is important to note that the decisions on modalities which the WIM can employ, discussed by SBI/SBSTA, and also to be approved by the COP, may also have implications on the WIM’s work plan and may require dedicated work to operationalize the specific modalities. However, since the decisions on the modalities cannot yet be foreseen, we are not in a position to make detailed suggestions in this regard, and also assume that they will be rather crosscutting and not necessarily impact on the proposed work areas as such.

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CAN Submission: Adaptation and Loss & Damage Under the ADP, June 2014

The recently released installments of the Fifth Assessment Report of the IPCC, the increasingly occurring extreme weather events and their devastating humanitarian impacts, and multiple studies clearly underline: the world community will fail in eliminating poverty and delivering on major sustainable development objectives without taking adequate action on all fronts - adaptation, mitigation, and increasingly loss and damage where mitigation and adaptation is not sufficient. We would like to remind governments that they agreed that “adaptation to climate change represents an immediate and urgent global priority.”

A 2015 deal, which governments are expected to agree as a landmark agreement, will fail in the eyes of the world public if it does not contribute in scaling up adaptation action for developing countries and the protection of the most vulnerable, often those who have contributed least to the growing threat of climate change. This is even more so the case in light of the continued lack of mitigation ambition required by science, with a world still on track into dangerous climate change, despite many positive developments in areas such as renewable energies and growing resistance against fossil fuel exploration and use. Reaffirmation and strengthening of the global goal in order to limit global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius should guide Parties’ Nationally Determined Contributions on mitigation, and the support provided by developed countries to developing countries.

Against this background, this submission outlines the current views of Climate Action Network on the role of adaptation and loss and damage in the 2015 agreement, and provides input into the discussions under Workstream 1 of the ADP. These negotiations should be underpinned by a clear determination to implement existing commitments and obligations. In this context we would also like to note that significantly scaling up international financial support by developed countries to vulnerable communities and countries will be central, and without this, architectural advancements under the UNFCCC will have a rather miniscule and insufficient effect.

For practical reasons, this submission follows the section structuring applied by the co-chairs of the ADP in their “Reflections” document. CAN is looking forward to engaging further in discussions with Parties during the June 2014 ADP session.

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CAN Adaptation Intervention on NAPs and Loss & Damage at COP 19, 12 November, 2013


Photo Credit: Mang Doungel

Thank you for the floor.  I am Jessica Faleiro from ActionAid speaking on behalf of Climate Action Network International

At COP 18, all countries decided that institutional arrangements such as an international mechanism would be established at COP 19.  

  • We re-iterate what many in the room have already said and urge all parties to come forward and engage constructively at this COP, in particular to establish  an International mechanism here in Warsaw with an agreement on key functions and modalities so that the mechanism can be operationalized by 2015.
  • This mechanism should be under the authority and guidance of COP. 
  • The institutional arrangements should also coordinate between the different bodies addressing issues such as emergency response, migration, biodiversity etc.  
  • The International Mechanism on Loss and Damage is not just about developing financial measures to address climate change impacts but also about generating knowledge and finding new ways to deal with slow onset events and non-economic losses like loss of cultural heritage, indigenous knowledge etc.
  • The devastation of Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines is a harsh reminder that there can't be any further delay in tackling loss and damage. This is about climate justice. It is about protecting people, their livelihoods and most importantly their human rights and dignity.

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