Tag: Agriculture

CAN Annual Policy Document, Executive Summary: Katowice - Spurring the Paris Agreement to Action, November 2018

The IPCC report on 1.5°C is a siren alerting humanity to the urgency of the climate crisis. The report shows even half a degree of warming makes a huge difference in terms of impacts; more than was previously known. It also shows that, already, some communities and ecosystems are being forced beyond the limits of adaptation. The report further demonstrates the tools needed to meet the Paris Agreement goal of limiting warming to 1.5°C are within the scope of science and human capability. It is economically and technically feasible, but we need political will right now.

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CAN Annual Policy Document, Full Version: Katowice - Spurring the Paris Agreement to Action, November 2018

The IPCC report on 1.5°C is a siren alerting humanity to the urgency of the climate crisis. The report shows even half a degree of warming makes a huge difference in terms of impacts; more than was previously known. It also shows that, already, some communities and ecosystems are being forced beyond the limits of adaptation. The report further demonstrates the tools needed to meet the Paris Agreement goal of limiting warming to 1.5°C are within the scope of science and human capability. It is economically and technically feasible, but we need political will right now.

2018 brought together numerous leaders from states and regions, cities, business, investors and civil society at the Global Climate Action Summit (GCAS), to underline the transformational action they are already pursuing. The Virtual Climate Summit convened by the vulnerable countries reinforced efforts to fight climate change in solidarity with all those facing this threat on the frontline. The baton has now been passed on to all governments.

This year, Parties engaged in a facilitative dialogue (Talanoa Dialogue) to take stock of the collective efforts towards the Paris Agreement’s long-term goal and to inform Parties on the preparation to update their Nationally

Determined Contributions. The Talanoa Dialogue also considered pre-2020 action and support. At COP24, during the High-level Ministerial Talanoa Dialogue, governments will commit to step-up their national ambition and review and enhance their NDCs by 2020.

Tools for implementation are essential for enhanced implementation of climate action. Predictable, sustainable and transparent finance — both public and private — is at the core of climate action and it is necessary for developing countries to fully implement their NDCs and instill trust in the Paris regime.

Clarity on the delivery of finance is vital. The Green Climate Fund board meeting in October agreed to a replenishment process in 2019 and sent a clear signal that the fund is back on track with a commitment to deliver US$1 billion for climate action in developing countries. At COP24 we need additional signals and concrete agreements on predictability and accountability to make the Paris Agreement work. The Paris Agreement is a promise to the people that governments will take collective climate action to protect us. At this year’s United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of the Parties (COP 24) governments are working towards a December 2018 deadline to adopt the key elements of the implementation guidelines to operationalize the Paris Agreement. The Agreement is the most collaborative piece of legislation in human history and it has sparked real hope. This year is the time to embrace multilateralism and spur the Paris Agreement into action by agreeing on robust, fair and cohesive rules. The rules will expand on the Paris Agreements ability to act as a foundation for countries’ collective action to tackle climate change and to increase ambition over time.

At COP 24, Parties to the UNFCCC must realize the vision of Paris by:

• Agreeing on a robust, fair and cohesive set of implementation guidelines to solidify the Paris regime and a roadmap to finalize outstanding issues;

• Stepping up and committing to enhancing their NDCs by 2020 in line with climate science;

• Reaffirming their climate finance commitments, agree to robust accounting standards and concrete ways to enhance predictability of funds from the contributor countries. Several elements will be necessary to enable both immediate and longer-term action:

 

RAISING AMBITION FOR THE PROTECTION OF PEOPLE AND PLANET:

• Informed by the IPCC Special Report on 1.5°C, the Talanoa Dialogue must send a strong signal to step-up climate ambition: through a COP Decision recalling paragraph 23 and 24 of Decision 1/CP.21 to enhance current NDCs by 2020; taking into account the discussions and outputs of the Talanoa Dialogue in the process of updating their NDCs and reflecting progression over time; and through a Co-Chairs of the process report on the Pathways to Action outlining specific and actionable key steps, responding to each of the questions raised in the Dialogue separate from a more technical summary by the UNFCCC Secretariat;

• While urgent action is required to avoid the worst impacts the vulnerable countries already face severe damages and displacement that require urgent support. Five years after the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage (WIM) was established at COP19, it is time to fully operationalize it. COP 24 must deliver highlevel guidance for the review of the WIM in 2019, including a need-assessment for loss and damage finance.

SUPPORT FOR ACTION TO ENABLE INCREASED AMBITION:

• Contributor countries should strongly reaffirm the collective commitment to scale up climate finance to $100bn per year by 2020, and back it up with concrete commitments, including the reaffirmation of their commitment to the GCF through sending political signals towards an ambitious replenishment and agree on accounting rules for climate finance which are robust and provide full transparency on actual assistance provided to developing countries for mitigation, adaptation and L&D. This needs to include agreement on accounting rules which ensure contributor countries report grant equivalent amounts for loans and other non-grant instruments; that non-concessional instruments are not counted as climate finance; and that only the climate-specific part of finance provided is counted.

• To make climate finance more predictable, countries shall fully operationalize Article 9.5 of the Paris Agreement. It requires that Parties at CMA1-3 agree on a process to provide qualitative and quantitative information in accordance to all sections of this article. All contributor countries should agree to provide similar types of ex-ante information for every channel and source to ensure comparability and coherence, including a timeline and the format for submissions.

• Parties must agree to discuss the post-2025 finance goal in a structured, inclusive and balanced way. At COP24, the APA should recommend that the CMA1 adopt a process to discuss this goal and ensure sufficient time for Parties and observers to provide input. This process should include a clear timeline for the agreement of the target and should welcome technical and scientific inputs from all bodies of the Financial Mechanism of the Convention, including an updated needs assessment and review of past climate finance and its effectiveness.

• COP24 must achieve a Technology Framework which ensures the focus of technology development and transfer is on the most climate vulnerable populations, achieving a balance in addressing adaptation and mitigation technology support. The Periodic Assessment must stipulate that the bodies of the Technology Mechanism collect data to assess its impact on technology development and transfer and contribution towards achieving the goals of the Paris Agreement.

PRESERVING THE SPIRIT OF PARIS BY AGREEING ON ROBUST AND FAIR RULES:

A core set of robust and enforceable guidelines — that build on and enhance the existing systems of transparency — will be critical to ensure trust and drive ambition:

• For transparency of action, it is essential that accurate and robust information is provided by Parties in a methodological manner concerning efforts on greenhouse gas inventories, NDC implementation and achievement, adaptation, finance, and allowing for non-state actors to contribute to the framework;

• Flexibility under the Enhanced Transparency Framework should be reflected in each element of the Enhanced Transparency Framework and be used as an enabling vehicle allowing progression over time. Parties should agree on minimum floors for the frequency, scope, and level of detail provided as well as guidelines for how flexibility is applied.

• Parties should adopt constructive guidelines for NDCs, including guidance for features of the NDCs, for the information in the NDCs to facilitate their clarity, transparency, and understanding, as well as for the accounting used in the NDCs. Guidance should include an invitation for Parties to provide information regarding how rights-related considerations, including a gender perspective, have informed the planning of the NDC. Such guidance may be differentiated, but not bifurcated.

• Develop accounting guidance based on inventory reporting under the Convention for REDD+ and LULUCF well before 2020.

• Any transfer of international emissions reductions should help to enhance ambition of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). At COP 24, parties should phase out the Kyoto Protocol’s flexible mechanisms and not recognize Kyoto emissions units for compliance with non-Kyoto mitigation commitments.

• In their transfers of international emissions reductions, Parties should avoid all forms of double counting as well as support and encourage all Parties to move toward economy-wide emission targets as called for in Article 4.4 of the Paris Agreement.

ROBUSTNESS OF THE PARIS AGREEMENT NOW AND OVER TIME:

• Parties need to decide on a single five-year common time frame for NDC implementation at COP24 in line with Article 4.1 of the Paris Agreement to enhance consistency and comparability of NDCs as well as better harness rapidly evolving real-world opportunities and incentivize early action and enable the best synchronization with the Paris climate regime.

• Parties need to finalize the general design of the Global Stocktake (GST) at COP 24. To serve its purpose, to ratchet-up ambition, the design needs to include the following elements:
– sufficient duration of 18-24 months, wherein some phases (e.g. input gathering and technical consideration) can overlap.
– the GST should be organized in workstreams oriented towards the three long-term goals of the Paris Agreement in Article 2 (temperature, resilience, and finance flows) and include a workstream on loss and damage.
– additionally, means of implementation (finance, technology, and capacity building) should be considered a cross-cutting issue of these workstreams.
– for the stocktake to be “conducted in the light of equity” means to treat equity as an overarching issue across all work streams and with regards to the design of the GST.

• Submit long-term greenhouse gas emission development strategies in line with Article 4.19 of the Agreement to transitioning to a future that is compatible with the long-term goals of the Paris Agreement and Just Transition.

ADVANCING WORK BEYOND THE PARIS AGREEMENT WORK PROGRAM:

• The work of the Koronivia Joint Work on Agriculture (KJWA) must enable Parties and other actors to take action that builds adaptive capacity and resilience, contributes to the equitable achievement of the Paris Agreement’s 1.5°C goal, and safeguards food security, the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities, gender equality, environmental integrity, and human rights.

• COP24 must now finalize the effective operationalization of the Local Communities and Indigenous Peoples Platform, learning from good practices in other multilateral forums and collectively agreed principles as well as providing it with adequate resources to perform its work.

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CAN Submission: Elements to be included in Koronivia Joint Work on Agriculture (KJWA), April 2018

At COP23, Decision –CP/23 invited parties and observers to submit their views on elements to be included in the joint SBSTA-SBI work that is now known as the “Koronivia Joint Work on Agriculture” (KJWA). Topics for consideration included but were not limited to: a) Modalities for implementation of the outcomes of the five in-session workshops; b) Methods and approaches for assessing adaptation, adaptation co-benefits and resilience; c) Improved soil carbon, soil health and soil fertility under grassland and cropland as well as integrated systems, including water management; d) Improved nutrient use and manure management towards sustainable and resilient agricultural systems; e) Improved livestock management systems; f) Socioeconomic and food security dimensions of climate change in the agricultural sector.

CAN’s submission addresses these questions through the following structure: Part One responds to question a) under the heading “Modalities and Procedures” with the purpose of shaping the KJWA mode of working to be effective, rigorous and relevant; Part Two responds to questions b) to f) under the heading “Technical Content” with the purpose of sharing CAN members’ knowledge and expertise on technical issues related to agriculture and climate change.

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Civil Society React to the One Planet Summit

The One Planet Summit is a positive move in the right direction. But

governments must step up with faster and more ambitious climate action.

Paris - The One Planet Summit saw the emergence of many positive initiatives namely the

World Bank committing to stop financing oil and gas exploration and extraction projects by

2019 and AXA insurance halting all new coal and oil sands development and announcing 12

billion Euros of green investment by 2020.

While they are positive steps in the right direction, these pledges are not enough to meet the

objectives of the Paris Agreement and the needs of vulnerable communities to adapt to climate

change and deal with the damages and losses caused by its impacts. We know from the 2017

United Nations Emissions Gap Report that we are not on track. The report tells us that we need

to triple efforts, step up both private and public finance and accelerate the deployment of

renewables to meet the goals of the Paris Agreement and keep warming below 1.5C.

This year is probably among the five-warmest since about 150 years and brought massive

hurricanes in the Atlantic and the Caribbean, devastating floods in south Asia and out of control

wildfires in California. Simultaneously, 2017 might have broken the global record of man-made

CO2 emissions after three years of stagnating carbon pollution, indicating that global use of

fossil fuels is growing stronger than its replacement by renewables. This only means that faster

and more urgent and concrete action is needed especially by governments to avert further and

severe devastation of people and destruction of ecosystems.

Despite these warning signs, many governments, private and multilateral development and

financial institutions are still funding fossil fuels in the range of hundreds of billion $US

annually. This undermines the Paris Treaty and is a complete waste of time and money that we

can no longer afford.

Governments, banks and other major actors must immediately shift investments from the

energy of the past, the dirty fossil fuel industry of coal, oil and gas towards 100% renewable

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energy, the cheapest, healthiest and most productive energy source. Countries must also move

towards energy efficiency and sustainable land use to prepare for a fully decarbonised economy

by mid-century latest.

This Summit was good for the momentum needed for 2018, a critical year filled with many

opportunities and moments for countries to step up and demonstrate ambition.

Climate Action Network members react:

Greenpeace International climate campaigner Gyorgy Dallos:

"The end is clearly coming for the oil and gas industry as the pace of change accelerates. After

Norges Bank's historic announcement, the World Bank – as one of the world's most powerful

financial institutions – has sent a damning vote of no confidence to the future of the fossil fuel

industry. The world’s financial institutions now need to take note and decide whether their

financing is going to be part of the problem or the solution. Critically, we also welcome the

World Bank taking the challenge to set a unifying standard for green bonds. This is much

needed especially considering the ongoing review of the China Green Bond Catalogue, which

still includes coal.”

Manuel Pulgar-Vidal, WWF Climate & Energy Practice Leader:

”The need for climate action has never been more urgent than now. Initiatives, such as this

Summit hosted by President Emmanuel Macron, are important to keep our leaders committed,

political will high and momentum in scaling and speeding up new and existing climate actions

across all actors. This is critical if we are to keep warming below 1.5°C and avoid the worst impacts

of climate change.”

Brett Fleishman, 350.org Senior Finance Campaigner:

“President Macron and other world leaders, are meeting right now to supposedly discuss

shifting capital to climate solutions. But we are here to ring the alarm by bringing attention to

the unabated support of the fossil fuel industry. We have research that clearly demonstrates

that the French government, through its many agencies, is still invested in the energies

sources of the past. This acts as a drag on the climate finance summit. This charade of caring

about the planet can’t go on. Every euro and dollar spent on adaptation and mitigation is

undercut by even more money spent on the fossil fuel industry,” said Brett

Fleishman, 350.org Senior Finance Campaigner. "Whatever the outcomes from this summit, the

global climate movement will keep on pushing through 2018 to accelerate the transition away

from fossil fuels to 100% renewable energy for all."

Alex Doukas, Director of the Stop Funding Fossils Program at Oil Change International:

“The World Bank’s monumental announcement that they are moving out of upstream oil and

gas finance after 2019 stole the show in Paris. This move from the World Bank demonstrates

real climate leadership, and could help signal a broader shift away from the tens of billions of

dollars in public finance that G20 governments and multilateral development banks dump into

fossil fuels each year. These institutions still provide $72 billion in public finance to fossil fuels

annually, which is why a shift away from fossil fuel finance is crucial if we hope to meet the

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aims of the Paris Agreement. Government commitments to scale up climate finance are

important, but they’re not enough. Others need to follow the lead of the World Bank and signal

that they will stop funding fossils.”

Nick Mabey, CEO and Co-founder E3G:

“The success of the One Planet Summit shows the world has moved past Trump and is focusing

on delivering the Paris Agreement. The sheer amount of announcements at the Summit prove

smart finance is moving out of fossil fuels and into the clean economy. We must now follow

through to make sure governments, businesses and financial institutions increase their climate

ambition to 2020 and beyond.”

Sven Harmeling, Global Policy Lead, Care International’s Climate Change and Resilience

Platform:

“CARE welcomes the One Planet Summit where promising announcements were made to move

away from fossil fuels to help slow down the escalation of climate change, such as by the World

Bank and the insurance company AXA. However, we are disappointed by the lack of

commitments from developed countries for adaptation finance which is necessary to help

vulnerable people, especially women and girls, prepare for climate change impacts such more

severe floods and droughts. Nations and private donors must step up their ambition in 2018.”

Erin Flanagan, Federal policy director at the Pembina Institute in Canada:

“Canada continues to take steps to phase-out dirty coal-fired power from its domestic

electricity mix by 2030. And today, together with the World Bank, it took a new step to

accelerate the coal-to-clean transition around the world. We commend this important step

forward and call on other countries join in this momentum.”

Aki Kachi, International Policy Director, Carbon Market Watch:

On the anniversary of the landmark Paris Agreement, world leaders have gathered again in

Paris to reiterate their commitment and many mention carbon pricing. For carbon pricing to

actually play the role it needs to, taxes and cap and trade programs need to start to bite: prices

must rise rapidly to 40-80 USD per tonne CO2 by 2020.

Christoph Bals, Policy Director, Germanwatch, said:

“The One Planet Summit showed we are in a new phase of international climate action focusing

on achieving the objectives agreed by all governments of the world two years ago. The summit

showed that there is enormous momentum to step up global climate action, particularly in

three areas: formulating a clear objective for national long term targets of net-zero emissions

by 2050; setting an investment relevant minimum price on carbon emissions; and requiring

companies to disclose their climate risks and strategies in a forward looking and comparable

way. For the future German government, this summit has formulated clear homework: France

is asking for a joint leadership role to set a carbon-neutrality objective by 2050, to introduce a

investment relevant minimum carbon price for all sectors and make forward looking climate

disclosure mandatory for companies and investors.”

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Catherine Abreu, Executive Director, Climate Action Network Canada:

“Celebrating the second anniversary of the Paris Agreement by showcasing its influence on

global economic trends was a brilliant way to drive home the real world implications of climate

action and the need to support the world’s most vulnerable communities as they fight climate

change and respond to its devastating impacts. However, high-level Summits are only as good

as the actions they generate, and the world will be watching to see to what extent momentum

is increased to shift financial flows and mobilize the trillions of dollars in climate finance

required. As one of the founders of the Powering Past Coal Alliance, Canada’s move to put its

money where its mouth is and partner with the World Bank to finance the coal-to-clean energy

transition in developing countries and small island states is a great example of the action

required. Now attention must turn, in Canada and around the world, to phasing out fossil fuel

subsidies. Countries can’t adequately fund climate solutions while they continue to fund the

problem."

Nithi Nesadurai Regional Coordinator Climate Action Network South-East Asia

“The One Planet Summit keeps the focus of the global community on the Paris Agreement and

outcomes of COP23, as we move into the COP24 next year when countries are expected to

raise their ambition on climate action through the Talanoa Dialogue. But for this Summit to be

truly meaningful, it needs to send a message that most of the global community, with

industrialised countries taking the lead, need to go faster and further than previously

considered towards raising their ambition to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Non state actors and all sectors also need to take ownership of this effort and step up if we are

to get to our goal of keeping temperature rise below 1.5C. It is the least we can do for our

planet."

For more information, contact:

Hala Kilani

Senior Communications Officer – CAN-International

Email: hkilani@climatenetwork.org

Tel: +961 3 567928 Skype: halakilani

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CAN Annual Policy Document: Pacific COP - Solidarity and Action to Realize the Promise of Paris, October 2017

At COP  23, Parties to the UNFCCC must realize the vision of Paris by making substantial progress on all agenda items under the Paris Agreement Work Programme. The development of a zero draft of the implementation guidelines, in form of a text, will be a key milestone to measure success. COP 23 must also lay the ground, in form of a roadmap, for a successful facilitative dialogue in 2018 to assess collective progress towards the goals of the Paris Agreement and indications of implications for revised NDCs.

Several elements will be necessary for creating the right conditions for enabling both immediate and longer-term action:

Raising Ambition to Avoid Increasing Impacts:

  • The Ambition Mechanism consists of three elements: a facilitative “Talanoa dialogue” in 2018 (FD2018), to assess collective progress against a 1.5°C pathway and to increase ambition thereafter, a second periodic review to translate science into policy, and a global stocktake to increase ambition every 5 years. Comprehensive progress must be made in the design of these elements at COP 23 to ensure they fulfil the potential for raising ambition that they embody.
  • Loss and Damage: CAN believes that the first Pacific COP is a unique opportunity for the WIM to fully implement its mandate. This includes generating and providing finance for loss and damage, including from innovative sources, adopting a stronger five-year workplan for the WIM than the one the ExCom approved in October, mandating the WIM and SCF to elaborate modalities for clear and transparent accounting of finance for loss and damage, and providing adequate finance to implement the mandate of the WIM.
  • Adaptation: Adaptation must be part of the ambition mechanism. In order to make that happen, clear guidelines for adaptation communications need to be adopted by 2018 and the Global Goal on Adaptation needs to be operationalized. A more comprehensive review of the institutional arrangements on adaptation, including National Adaptation Plans (NAPs), must also be initiated to determine if they are fit-for-purpose.
  • Agriculture: To enhance the implementation of the Paris Agreement and to identify and catalyze action to address gaps in knowledge, research, action and support, a joint SBSTA/SBI Work Programme on Agriculture and Food Security should be established by COP 23.

Support for Action to Enable Increased Ambition:

  • Finance: COP 23 should result in progress towards ramping up climate finance to US$100 billion a year by 2020 to be increased by 2025, progress in mobilizing private finance in developing countries, and improved transparency of finance mobilized and provided. The imbalance between mitigation and adaptation finance should also be recognized and lead to increased adaptation finance and confirmation that the Adaptation Fund will serve the Agreement.
  • Technology: The Technology Framework must ensure support for climate technology towards the goal of successfully implementing NDCs. To this end, the periodic assessment must include metrics and indicators that will enable countries to make informed choices and predict the needs of developing countries for transformational technologies.

Transparency of Action and Support:

  • Enhanced Transparency Framework: A core set of robust and enforceable guidelines that build on and enhance the existing systems of transparency, towards a common framework, is critical in driving ambition. The modalities, procedures and guidelines (MPGs) should ensure that accurate and sufficient qualitative and quantitative information on adaptation, finance, policies and measures, and projections are submitted by Parties.
    • Transparency of Action: MPGs must include transparency of mitigation and adaptation and should be broad enough to account for different NDC types towards providing up-to-date and relevant information to the global stocktake.
    • Transparency of Support: Key concepts of modalities for accounting climate finance must be identified at COP 23, including further guidance on how to report on non-financial support. Support should be provided to developing countries that will enable them to comply with common standards of the transparency framework.
    • Flexibility in the Transparency Framework: CAN encourages Parties to recognize flexibility in different ways for countries that need it while at the same time encourages Parties to make MPGs that could be implemented by all Parties that will ensure maximum levels of detail, accuracy, and comparability.
  • Accounting for Agriculture Forestry and other Land Use (AFOLU): CAN believes that it is essential that all Parties account for emissions and removals from AFOLU in all land use sectors in a comparable and transparent way using the methodologies provided in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines and NDC-consistent base years measured using agreed methodologies.
  • Accounting for International Transfers: CAN believes that any transfer of international units should help enhance ambition of NDCs. This can be done by ensuring that the guidelines for Article 6 avoid double counting and are in line with the goals of transparency, enhanced ambition, environmental integrity, human rights, and sustainable development.
  • Accounting for International Shipping and Aviation: Parties should urgently take action through national, bilateral, regional and multilateral measures to reduce transport emissions and ensure that the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) give adequate account of measures and efforts in the FD2018. Parties should also include information on bunker fuel burn and relevant transport work in their NDCs and ensure that the use of any mitigation outcomes guarantees environmental integrity and is not double counted.

 

Robustness of the Paris Agreement Now and Over Time:

  • Long-Term Strategies and Action Agenda: To encourage increased ambition and early adoption of low-carbon pathways, all countries should come forward with long-term strategies as soon as possible, following a fully participatory planning process with G20 countries leading the way and submitting well before 2020. Strategies should include countries’ planned peak years, the year they expect to achieve a balance of sources and sinks, and details of conditions or support needed. Limiting global warming to 1.5°C will require urgent, ramping up of pre-2020 action on mitigation, adaptation, and means of implementation.
  • Civil Society Participation: Fijian “talanoa” spirit should serve the Parties with a longer-term framework for fruitful and balanced deliberations. In particular, active civil society participation should be guaranteed during the FD2018 process, the development of guidelines for the global stocktake, the transparency framework, deliberations on Article 6 and in the development and implementation of long-term strategies.
  • Gender Action Plan and Indigenous People’s Platform: This year the Gender Action Plan should be adopted and the Local Communities and Indigenous People’s Platform should be made operational to ensure that those that may be victims of climate change are being empowered
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