Thank you for the opportunity to provide a written statement in advance of ADP 2-11.
Procedurally, the new Co-Chairs’ non-paper of 5 October represents a welcome shift in gear in the ADP process. But this text cannot be endorsed as the basis for text-based negotiations as it stands as its elements have been presented in a lowest common denominator form, manifestly lacking the ambition needed to prevent further environmental and human harms. However, it is a workable document whose options are far less divergent than those contained in previous drafts of the negotiating text.
An adequate long-term vision, scientific integrity, as well as key equity, human rights and public participation considerations are missing from the current draft text. Certain political convergences, including from the lunch meeting hosted by Secretary General Ban at the UN General Assembly this September, are insufficiently reflected in the document.
ADP 2-11 needs to arrive at an ambitious “advanced draft Paris climate package” that paves the way for an outcome in Paris that will act as a springboard towards a climate-safe world. The main task for delegates at this session is to work from this non-paper to increase ambition across the various elements of the text, including – as set out below – on a robust review and revision mechanism, a long-term mitigation goal, adaptation, loss & damage, demonstrating that financial support from developed to developing countries will be scaled up, and pre-2020 action.
Introducing the necessary durability and adequacy into the climate regime requires that the Paris Agreement establish a review and revision mechanism to increase Parties’ ambition over time consistent with limiting global warming to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels. The draft text alludes to the five-year commitment periods that are an essential starting point in this regard. However, the “Global Stocktake” proposed in the current text is a far cry from the robust process necessary to ensure countries realise an increase in efforts and ambition over time.
CAN proposes the adoption of a “Paris Ambition Mechanism” (PAM) in the Paris Agreement that should link and synchronise Parties' mitigation, finance and adaptation commitments in 5-year cycles. The PAM should facilitate ambition within the Paris Agreement to close any foreseeable ambition or implementation gaps within the relevant 5-year cycle of commitments. It should combine a review of the adequacy and equity of commitments with the matching of finance, technology and capacity building support to the requirements of countries that wish to act beyond their domestic capabilities as stated in their INDCs. A first review round should take place well before 2020 and lead to the ratcheting up of inadequate commitments for the determinative 2020-2025 period in a fair and ambitious manner.
The PAM’s work must be directed by a long-term vision of the world we need: countries must commit to reach full global decarbonisation and a complete transition to renewable energy by 2050. To achieve full decarbonisation in a way that is just and achieves wider sustainable development objectives, each country should develop national decarbonisation strategies to shift rapidly from a high-carbon economic growth model to sustainable development.
For where mitigation action falls short, the Paris Agreement must moreover make a much clearer link to increased financial support for adaptation, and recognise that rising temperatures will require greater adaptation efforts taking into account the expected temperature increase.
On loss and damage, the Paris Agreement should go much further than merely noting the problem and the need for international solutions: it should ensure that institutional arrangements under the Paris Agreement will further strengthen the work on and support for loss and damage as the problem evolves. This section must remain separate from adaptation.
Success in any and all of these elements requires an increase in the provision of financial support from developed to developing countries. The current draft, however, fails to provide even the most basic level of assurance and predictability in this regard. The Paris Agreement must establish that every five years, collective targets (with separate targets for mitigation and for adaptation) for the provision of new and additional public financial support will be set; and introduce a general commitment by developed countries and developing countries with a higher capacity and larger responsibility in a position to do so to contribute to meeting these.
On Workstream 2, the Paris COP Decision must enable a move from discussion of opportunities to catalysing implementation on the ground, including through appointing high-level champions to help matchmake mitigation opportunities to partners and financing, as well as through strengthening of the technical examination processes.
Parties should also promote further adaptation efforts before 2020, including through identifying support and cooperation needs at different levels in order to achieve the speedy implementation of additional adaptation actions and components in INDCs and NAPs.
Crucially in pre-2020 finance, developed countries must demonstrate how they intend to scale up public finance in order to meet the financial commitment they made in Copenhagen to mobilise 100 billion dollars per year by 2020.
Finally, as an overarching concern, the current language of the draft Agreement and draft COP Decision should be improved across all sections to be more detailed, and far less ambiguous. Parties’ contributions should be anchored as “commitments” to show they are serious about meeting them. An overarching reference to human rights in the operative text of the Agreement must furthermore be included to help ensure that Parties respect human rights when developing and implementing these commitments and other climate actions. Parties should also reiterate their resolve to enhance public participation in climate policies.
The INDCs tabled over the course of this year are wholly inadequate for keeping the world on a pathway of less than 1.5°C temperature rise and preventing catastrophic climate impacts. To achieve the necessary change, COP 21 must ensure a consistent increase in ambition over time across all elements of the Paris Package, requiring the current text to improve substantially. Governments must ensure they get this right, and the Climate Action Network looks forward to further opportunities for stakeholders to contribute to this process.