Climate change and the lack of adequate policies to address climate change present global threats to the realisation of human rights, in particular in relation to the rights of people and communities that are already vulnerable or marginalized. For this reason, the transition to a low-carbon economy and resilient communities must fully protect human rights. By integrating human rights into climate policies, countries will strengthen the long-term effectiveness of, and build public support for, climate actions. The Paris Climate Conference thus provides a crucial opportunity to establish a new framework for climate action that strengthens mitigation and adaptation while addressing the needs of vulnerable groups.
This paper sets forth CAN’s position as to why and where human rights language should be included in the Paris Agreement. In particular, in order to establish a framework that effectively addresses climate change and protects those most vulnerable from the adverse impacts of climate change and climate policies, Parties must include the following reference to human rights in the operative section of the core agreement:
All Parties shall, in all climate change related actions, respect, protect, promote, and fulfil human rights for all, including the rights of indigenous peoples; ensuring gender equality and the full and equal participation of women; ensuring intergenerational equity; ensuring a just transition of the workforce that creates decent work and quality jobs; ensuring food security; and ensuring the integrity and resilience of natural ecosystems.
This language calling for rights protections must be included for the following reasons:
1. While the Parties to the UNFCCC have recognized the interplay between human rights and climate change, they have not taken action to operationalize their rights obligations. 2. Human rights are a cross-cutting issue in the implementation of the Convention. 3. Human rights must be integrated into climate actions at all levels. 4. Integrating human rights into climate action will not divert focus from combating the causes and impacts of climate change but will promote more effective climate action.
In order for the Paris Agreement to promote effective climate policies that benefit people and communities affected by climate impacts and climate policies, the Parties to the UNFCCC must include a reference to human rights in the core agreement to be adopted at COP-21 in Paris. This provision must be overarching in order to apply to all areas of implementation of the Convention. It must be included in the operative section of the agreement in order to guarantee its effective and systematic implementation. It must be comprehensive and address all key dimensions of the relation between human rights and climate change.
Thank you for the opportunity to provide a written statement in advance of ADP 2-11.
Procedurally, the new Co-Chairs’ non-paper of 5 October represents a welcome shift in gear in the ADP process. But this text cannot be endorsed as the basis for text-based negotiations as it stands as its elements have been presented in a lowest common denominator form, manifestly lacking the ambition needed to prevent further environmental and human harms. However, it is a workable document whose options are far less divergent than those contained in previous drafts of the negotiating text.
An adequate long-term vision, scientific integrity, as well as key equity, human rights and public participation considerations are missing from the current draft text. Certain political convergences, including from the lunch meeting hosted by Secretary General Ban at the UN General Assembly this September, are insufficiently reflected in the document.
ADP 2-11 needs to arrive at an ambitious “advanced draft Paris climate package” that paves the way for an outcome in Paris that will act as a springboard towards a climate-safe world. The main task for delegates at this session is to work from this non-paper to increase ambition across the various elements of the text, including – as set out below – on a robust review and revision mechanism, a long-term mitigation goal, adaptation, loss & damage, demonstrating that financial support from developed to developing countries will be scaled up, and pre-2020 action.
Introducing the necessary durability and adequacy into the climate regime requires that the Paris Agreement establish a review and revision mechanism to increase Parties’ ambition over time consistent with limiting global warming to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels. The draft text alludes to the five-year commitment periods that are an essential starting point in this regard. However, the “Global Stocktake” proposed in the current text is a far cry from the robust process necessary to ensure countries realise an increase in efforts and ambition over time.
CAN proposes the adoption of a “Paris Ambition Mechanism” (PAM) in the Paris Agreement that should link and synchronise Parties' mitigation, finance and adaptation commitments in 5-year cycles. The PAM should facilitate ambition within the Paris Agreement to close any foreseeable ambition or implementation gaps within the relevant 5-year cycle of commitments. It should combine a review of the adequacy and equity of commitments with the matching of finance, technology and capacity building support to the requirements of countries that wish to act beyond their domestic capabilities as stated in their INDCs. A first review round should take place well before 2020 and lead to the ratcheting up of inadequate commitments for the determinative 2020-2025 period in a fair and ambitious manner.
The PAM’s work must be directed by a long-term vision of the world we need: countries must commit to reach full global decarbonisation and a complete transition to renewable energy by 2050. To achieve full decarbonisation in a way that is just and achieves wider sustainable development objectives, each country should develop national decarbonisation strategies to shift rapidly from a high-carbon economic growth model to sustainable development.
For where mitigation action falls short, the Paris Agreement must moreover make a much clearer link to increased financial support for adaptation, and recognise that rising temperatures will require greater adaptation efforts taking into account the expected temperature increase.
On loss and damage, the Paris Agreement should go much further than merely noting the problem and the need for international solutions: it should ensure that institutional arrangements under the Paris Agreement will further strengthen the work on and support for loss and damage as the problem evolves. This section must remain separate from adaptation.
Success in any and all of these elements requires an increase in the provision of financial support from developed to developing countries. The current draft, however, fails to provide even the most basic level of assurance and predictability in this regard. The Paris Agreement must establish that every five years, collective targets (with separate targets for mitigation and for adaptation) for the provision of new and additional public financial support will be set; and introduce a general commitment by developed countries and developing countries with a higher capacity and larger responsibility in a position to do so to contribute to meeting these.
On Workstream 2, the Paris COP Decision must enable a move from discussion of opportunities to catalysing implementation on the ground, including through appointing high-level champions to help matchmake mitigation opportunities to partners and financing, as well as through strengthening of the technical examination processes.
Parties should also promote further adaptation efforts before 2020, including through identifying support and cooperation needs at different levels in order to achieve the speedy implementation of additional adaptation actions and components in INDCs and NAPs.
Crucially in pre-2020 finance, developed countries must demonstrate how they intend to scale up public finance in order to meet the financial commitment they made in Copenhagen to mobilise 100 billion dollars per year by 2020.
Finally, as an overarching concern, the current language of the draft Agreement and draft COP Decision should be improved across all sections to be more detailed, and far less ambiguous. Parties’ contributions should be anchored as “commitments” to show they are serious about meeting them. An overarching reference to human rights in the operative text of the Agreement must furthermore be included to help ensure that Parties respect human rights when developing and implementing these commitments and other climate actions. Parties should also reiterate their resolve to enhance public participation in climate policies.
The INDCs tabled over the course of this year are wholly inadequate for keeping the world on a pathway of less than 1.5°C temperature rise and preventing catastrophic climate impacts. To achieve the necessary change, COP 21 must ensure a consistent increase in ambition over time across all elements of the Paris Package, requiring the current text to improve substantially. Governments must ensure they get this right, and the Climate Action Network looks forward to further opportunities for stakeholders to contribute to this process.
CLIMATE ACTION NETWORK ADP 2-10 INTERVENTION 31 August 2015
Thank you for the opportunity to provide a written statement in advance of ADP 2-10.
Climate Action Network International (CAN) believes that the Co-Chairs’ tool and the Elements for a Draft Workstream 2 Decision Document, both published on 24 July 2015, form a conducive basis for discussions going forward.
However, several decisive issues still require further consideration and strengthening to instill confidence that the Paris outcome will be scientifically adequate, durable, and meet the needs of the most vulnerable.
Recognising that only 10 official negotiating days remain before the start of COP21, and thus the need to prioritise key issues, CAN recommends that delegates ensure the following issues are addressed at ADP 2-10:
1. Ensuring appropriate placement of ‘Section III’ issues
2. Uptake and elaboration of a credible and durable Ambition Acceleration Mechanism
3. Increasing pre-2020 ambition
CAN's ADP 2-10 Opening Intervention sets out a number of concrete steps in this regard.
The Durban Platform recognizes that in order to fulfill the ultimate objective of the Convention, the multilateral, rules-based regime will need to be strengthened. For this reason, it was agreed that by 2015, the ADP would develop and adopt “a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force”, to take effect from 2020.
However, beyond identifying these three possible outcomes from the ADP, the Durban mandate does not prescribe the final legal architecture of the agreement to be made at COP21. Notably, it does not specify whether the outcome should consist of a single instrument or multiple instruments, and, in case of the latter, what form these instruments should take or how obligations should be distributed within them.
Yet the question of the final architecture of the Paris outcome is crucial, as it will help determine how various elements and issues within the climate negotiations are treated, thereby impacting the ambition and effectiveness of the overall outcome. This matter needs to be addressed in the UNFCCC negotiations adequately early to provide the necessary clarity to move forward with the textual negotiations.
This position paper presents CAN-International’s stance on, and expectations for, the composition of the final Paris outcome. It proposes a “package deal”—one that takes into account national circumstances whilst safeguarding ambition, accountability, and equity—as the most appropriate outcome for COP21.
~~CAN is encouraged that the Co-Chairs’ tool contains a substantial amount on land sector accounting rules from the Geneva Negotiating Text (GNT). We have long advocated the need for such rules and think that an environmentally sound outcome can be developed from the current text. We would prefer the principles governing land sector rules to be included in the treaty text, simply because they are principles, but accept that the same outcome can probably be achieved if they are included in the COP Decision, where the Co-Chairs have placed them.
In this paper we first restate in outline our policy position on land sector rules. We then briefly examine the Co-Chair’s text and present a clean text on the land sector based on their tool. This is followed by a section in which we show precisely which brackets we have removed and what we have deleted.
All UNFCCC Parties agreed in Lima on a long-term temperature goal of limiting global average temperature rise to below 1.5°C or 2°C above pre-industrial levels. Since then, Parties have considered the possibility of adopting a complementary long-term goal (LTG) to operationalize this temperature target. The new global climate agreement, whose adoption is anticipated in Paris this December, represents a tremendous opportunity to frame an adequate, overarching global goal for the decades to come, yet it also comes with risks in this regard.
It is therefore timely for CAN to summarize the debate surrounding the appropriate LTG to emerge from COP21 in Paris. Although negotiators are also considering including in the Paris outcome LTGs for adaptation, loss and damage, and finance, this discussion paper limits itself to providing an overview and explanation of the mitigation LTGs referred to in the Geneva Text, as well as of the mitigation goals that have been prominently articulated by civil society. The paper aims to inform negotiators and civil society actors by clarifying different options currently in the text and by presenting a discussion on what the ultimate objective of the new Paris Agreement could be.