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Fossil of the Day 12 December 2019

Fossil of the Day at COP25 - December 12th

Today we have in first place for the fossil of the day award the United States of America (USA) (again and again)!

The main reason is for generally really standing in the way of any money going to the people suffering from climate change. This has been going on for at least six years. This should really raise eyebrows about the country´s lack of empathy. Are there real people in office in the US People with actual hearts? Or have they replaced their humanity with a lump of coal?

First inhumanity, and now they put on full display their paranoia! They are afraid of being held accountable for causing droughts in Africa. They are afraid of being held accountable for the drowning of the Pacific; the destruction of entire civilisations. Actually, they should be held accountable but this is not what the Paris Agreement is about. It is about international cooperation, no developing country talked about liability. Yet the US insists on language on liability and compensation in the draft COP Decision text on the Review of the Warsaw International Mechanism on Loss & Damage (WIM).

Hey US you are on your way out, you are not giving a single dollar to the Green Climate Fund and now you don’t want any help to get to the people bearing the brunt of the mess you created! And still, you want to be part of the WIM’s Executive Committee! Pay up or step out, let others move forward already.

The Second Fossil of the Day award goes to developed countries with special mention to the European Union, Canada and Australia for showing lack of ambition in responding to vulnerable peoples’needs on loss and damage.

The WIM Review unofficially began on December 1st, and the overwhelming message was that finance to address loss and damage must be an outcome of COP25.

Two weeks later, poor and vulnerable countries and civil society are wondering if developed countries attended a different meeting on December 1st.

While we acknowledge they have been less problematic than the US, developed countries, including Australia, Canada and the European Union have done very little very late to advance discussions on loss and damage finance age. It’s especially confusing when all three have agreed that existing climate finance is insufficient. Anyhow, aren’t they the rich people in the room? And part of the club that caused the problem in the first place? Why is it so difficult for them to pay for the damages they are still causing.  Also…hey Canada… isn’t high time you differentiate yourself from cronies like Australia and the US? 

It is beyond us to understand how developed countries can sit by and continue to twiddle their thumbs whilst vulnerable communities in developing countries experience severe losses and damages. You have one day left to show you want to be on the right side of history!


The third fossil award goes to Australia - for using carbon market loopholes to meet its climate targets

We award this fossil to Australia for planning to cheat the atmosphere by carrying over its credits from the Kyoto protocol. Instead of cutting greenhouse gas pollution, Australia is using creative accounting. Please bear with us now: Australia plans to count surplus carbon credits from exceeding previous targets against future targets. Regrettably, this was allowed under the old Kyoto protocol, but it is not even mentioned in the Paris agreement. No country in though about such trickery.

To make things worse, since the Paris Agreement is a new and separate treaty, this is not even legal stuff! 

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Time to Act Against Undue Influence and Corruption

On December 9, the world celebrated anti-corruption day, and on December 10 human rights day. These topics keep evaporating at COP. Why is ambition still lacking when we have the solutions, technologies, and the money? Solving the climate crisis is possible, but vested economic interests, corporate capture, and a lack of political will are in the way. CAN is calling on Parties to commit to good governance and act with the highest degree of integrity when deciding on the future of our planet; a conflict of interest policy is urgently needed for the UNFCCC.

We need to end undue influence now

Political interference from vested interests prevents measures being taken to solve the climate crisis and can redirect the negotiations toward solutions that don’t align with the science and which undermine ambition. A recent report shows that the world’s five largest oil and gas companies spent over US$1 billion on climate-related branding and lobbying since the Paris Agreement. This must change; the way that lobbying and campaign financing is regulated at national levels must improve. 

Corruption and political interference take many forms, from self-enrichment to the blocking, delaying, and watering down of key policy-making.

The fossil fuel industry and other emission-intensive industries have a long and well-documented history of undermining the UNFCCC and other bodies. Through their interference and corrupt practices, crucial outcomes of this process – including, for example, the Kyoto Protocol itself – have been stalled, blocked or undermined. We need to remove the undue influence of fossil fuel companies and other high-emitting corporations from the halls of the UNFCCC. To that end, Parties must join the governments, representing more than 70% of the world’s population, who called for a conflict of interest policy in 2016 and have continued to demand one since. The US, the EU and Australia, who all have variations of such policies in their national legislative bodies should be champions for this, not opponents! A policy such as this will give governments the precedent they need to root out interference at home, and make way for a just transformation.

Corruption risks in key sectors

The world needs to take crucial steps towards a greener future, including phasing out fossil fuels, protecting forests, improving sustainable transportation, and deploying renewable energy sources. These actions all involve industries with particularly high corruption risks and histories of climate denial or policy interference, such as construction, forestry and fossil fuels. For example, the World Bank estimates that 20-40% of water sector finances are lost to corrupt practices. Similar rates apply for the transport and energy sectors. In some sectors, this is exacerbated by criminal activities; in countries that produce tropical timber, 50-90% of the volume of all forestry is illegal.

Countries that are especially vulnerable to the impacts of climate change often have higher levels of public sector corruption and political interference from corporate actors. Instead of improving peoples’ lives, financial flows — along with other climate policies — might not reach the frontline communities most affected by the impacts of the climate crisis. Corruption harms the environment and slows down progress towards all Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): we need to keep transparency, accountability and integrity at the core of the Paris Agreement.

Protect civic space & environmental defenders

Where corruption thrives and rule of law is weak, those standing up against environmental crimes are risking their lives. Death rates among environmental activists have been rising steadily over the past 15 years. Since 2002, over 1500 people – farmers, NGO workers, lawyers and journalists – have been killed for defending their environment and lands.

We must protect those who protect the environment, and end impunity for crimes against them. Laws that protect human rights must be properly enforced. Legal intimidation and criminalisation of activists has to end. We also need reliable access to information, safe channels to report corruption, and laws to protect whistle-blowers. We must create and protect spaces for citizen participation, because civil society engagement is key to effective decision-making and sustained support for climate action. Parties from Latin America and the Caribbean must sign and ratify the Escazu agreement.

We can’t tackle the climate crisis without tackling corruption

We can only solve the climate crisis if we safeguard policymaking from the interference of the industries who have so richly profited from driving this crisis. We must prevent corruption and make sure global climate policy serves the interests of all people and the planet, not just a few private concerns. For action against climate change to be effective, we urgently need to shift perspectives and step up efforts towards transparency, accountability, and integrity. The UNFCCC has a key role to play in this by advancing policies that protect against conflicts of interest and maintain the integrity and legitimacy of the negotiations. We must make good governance the cornerstone of the fight against climate change, and therefore of the Paris Agreement; a first urgent step is to agree on a conflict of interest policy.

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NDCs <3 SDGs

Six long months ago CAN published a briefing on climate change and the SDGs which rightly sought to bring the discussion way beyond goal 13 on climate change. In this, it argued that efforts to achieve all the goals are dependent on efforts to respond to global heating. The clue is in the ‘sustainable’. Similarly, responding to the climate crisis depends on advances made towards the development goals.

As the IPCC 1.5ºC report said: “sustainable development supports and enables the fundamental societal and systems transitions and transformations that will help limit global warming to 1.5°C. It can achieve ambitious mitigation and adaptation in conjunction with poverty eradication and efforts to reduce inequalities”.

Several SDG themes (i.e. socio-economic sectoral categories) are addressed by numerous climate actions, indicating that there are multiple opportunities for policy coherence. This can be a major contribution of climate action to the delivery of coherent delivery of Agenda 2030.

Analysis has shown that links between existing NDCs and the SDGs are found in the areas of water, food and energy.

Despite environmental goals being represented in a bunch of the NDCs, many countries do not make explicit plans to realise potential for nature-based solutions that could help deliver SDG 14 (life below water) and 15 (life on land), as well as contributing to climate mitigation and resilience.

The social SDGs are highly under-represented in NDC commitments compared to the environmental and economic goals; in particular health, education and gender equality (SDGs 3, 4 and 5, respectively).

NDCs should reflect the findings of the IPCC on climate-resilient development pathways and “the importance of addressing structural, intersecting inequalities, marginalisation, and multidimensional poverty” to “transform the development pathways themselves toward greater social and environmental sustainability, equity, resilience, and justice”.

Given the multiple connections between climate vulnerability and poverty, more ambitious NDCs should account for social as well as the environmental goals of Agenda 2030.

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Two Sides of the Same Coin: A Youth Perspective on Climate and Social Crisis

The twin traumas of social and environmental crises are bearing down on citizens around the world, but political leaders lack the passion and ambition needed to address thelooming catastrophe. In some places, they lack even simple acknowledgement and acceptance. To get a better sense of what happens outside the walls of COP, ECO spoke with youth from Chile and Mexico, and their experiences show how stark the contrast is between the struggles of people on the ground and the attitudes of their leaders. The people in charge could learn a thing or two about working together from these youth.

What’s clear is that the climate crisis and the social crisis are two sides of the same coin, and need to be addressed together in order to fully be addressed at all.

Chileans are facing enormous challenges with their government. And because COP25 was supposed to be there instead of here, let’s hear from a Chilean youth as COP comes to a slow, unsteady end.

What the world, and even Chile’s own government, doesn’t understand is how most Chileans are alarmingly exposed to the disastrous effects of the environmental catastrophe. Because of extreme social and economic differences, the 1% live comfortably and ignore the social issues that affect the most vulnerable. People are waking up, but no matter how much they protest, the government is not listening.According to politicians, youth have no voice to speak with.

It is inconceivable that there is not a single drop of empathy from politicians who watch from afar while their own city burns to the ground and rots from the inside out.

In Mexico, being an environmental activist is a heavy, dangerous task. ‘Disappeared,’ ‘found dead,’ ‘gone missing.’ These are words and phrases that we see in the news every day. Chilling images under countless names — as much as one tries to ignore the headlines, fear builds in our hearts — is the risk, the fight, even worth it? How can anyone expect people to fight the climate crisis when their own safety is being threatened every day?

Fear and safety are boiling issues in this country. Mexicans face the displacement of millions, loss and extinction of species, and the segregation of vulnerable groups like women and Indigenous Peoples. All these issues are escalating on account of the climate crisis.

These are only a few of the ways people’s rights are being threatened, and it’s time for countries to address both sides of the coin. No one said leading a country was easy, but our leaders signed up for it. And now it's time for them to deliver.

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Solving the Climate and Biodiversity Emergencies

We know that life on Earth is facing two interlinked emergencies – climate, and biodiversity – both of which result from human pressure on the natural world, and both of which have only a small window of time left in which we can act to solve them.

Each crisis makes the other worse. Every time we clear or log a forest, drain a wetland, dry out a peatland, bleach a coral reef, over-exploit a fish stock, trawl a seagrass bed or dam a wild river, we make things worse, whether exacerbating the climate crisis, or further damaging biodiversity; in turn, reducing ecosystem integrity and stability. Carbon, formerly safely stored in those ecosystems, is released.  Once damaged, these natural ecosystems are then more vulnerable to further loss and damage from drought, fire, acidification, deoxygenation and climate change.  All of which risks increasing the release of GHGs to the atmosphere and making the future for biodiversity on which our lives depend ever more tenuous. Indigenous peoples appreciate this more than most, often having a closer and deeper relationship with nature; yet their wisdom is ignored, their territories invaded and destroyed, and their human rights disregarded in the name of the most climate- and nature-unfriendly initiatives.

Preventing further damage, and improving the integrity of natural and agricultural ecosystems is urgent. We can and must draw a line under the downwards spiral we are on. Unless we act to solve both emergencies together, we will likely fail on both.

The good news is that conversations at this COP have started to occur on the need to promote integrated solutions – and where better than in revised NDCs, that must be developed early next year? Synergistic implementation of the Rio Conventions can and must be achieved.  ECO thinks it's time to operationalize the ecosystem provisions of the UNFCCC and the Paris Agreement. We hope COP25 sets a path for robust action to protect and restore biodiversity and ecosystem integrity at COP26… Something the Paris Agreement calls on all Parties to achieve

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Voices From the Front Lines

At COP24 in Katowice, 14 accredited participants were stopped at the border and denied entry into Poland so that they would not be able to attend the COP. These people were from the Ukraine, Russia, Kyrgyzstan and Georgia.

After 1 year, it is still a mystery to ECO on how the Polish authorities identified those climate activists as a possible "threat to national security" of the hosting country. Most of them were newcomers at international climate change events, and did not have records of offences in Poland or any other country. ECO hopes it was not like in the movies when police officers make their investigations based off some paranormal perception of the future.

This year, we met Nugzar Kokhreidze from Georgia, who had been denied the right to participate in the climate negotiations by Poland and spent 4 days in the transit zone at the Katowice airport. He is a friendly, cheerful, and kind person and  it is still not been made clear why and how he was selected as a person who poses a potential threat to Poland’s national security. Now at COP25, Nugzar has become one of the 12 people who were physically debadged during a peaceful protest on Wednesday, December 11th. He has stayed optimistic throughout the whole process and already made jokes about what will likely happen to him at COP26. Although it helps to cheer each other up in these hard times, these issues are no joke. We see that the media at COP is not covering these stories widely enough. We see how negotiations are moving so much slower than the climate catastrophe. And, to be honest, we are a bit scared that this is the reality civil society will face from now on.

But we are also hopeful. We want you, the person who reads this article, to spread the word as far and wide as you can. We want you to support your local activists and maybe even join them. And we want you to cheer each other up in hard times, like Nugzar did. Because we need to be strong and we need each other in the forthcoming years.

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It’s Not Time to Say Goodbye

Dear Party delegates,

2019 has been a year in which millions of people have taken their demands to the streets (and hundreds to the halls of the IFEMA Conference Center), clearly voicing our discontent with the c-o-m-p-l-e-t-e lack of ambition to address the climate emergency.

With only 17 days separating us from 2020 — the year when global emissions need to decrease drastically — it's high time to adopt an ambitious package here at COP, before going home and getting to work in our respective countries and communities.  We came here to hear your concrete plans on how you will enhance your NDCs by 2020 to ensure we limit warming to 1.5°C, and we didn’t hear much that inspired hope.

To prepare you for such an exciting year as 2020 will be, ECO has put together a list of the necessary ingredients for a truly transformative NDC:

This NDC will affect everyone, so include everyone; ensure a broad civil society based approach. Don't know where to start? Here’s a TIP: process needs to be Transparent, Inclusive and Participatory.
A well-defined timeline for enhancing your NDCs, making sure they are complete by the end of August or, at latest, September.
A long-term strategy that will ensure a sustainable, equitable, and just transition of our societies, for people and planet, with real positive impact on the ground and at local levels.
A little bit of courage to make sure that, in spite of the lobbying efforts of big emitters and industry, we have ambition that embraces human rights, ecosystems and addresses the needs of the most vulnerable;

If you wrap these ingredients with the best available science — like the three very comprehensive special reports that you yourself ordered to guide your work and the IPCC has so kindly laid out — you (and we) will be just fine.

It is, once again, that time of the year when we depart from these halls. But now, with the NDC revision process knocking at your door, it's not time to say goodbye. Rather, we’ll say: we'll see you very soon, at home. And please do not worry, we'll be there to make sure you unpack the ambition package properly.

Hasta luego!

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Och Aye the COP

In many ways, the COP can take place anywhere. Inside the halls, meeting rooms and plenary spaces of IFEMA, you could be forgiven for forgetting that you are in in Spain at all. Each year the COP comes to town and creates a world of its own. Whether you are in Katowice, Bonn, Marrakech or Paris, the view from the negotiating table is frustratingly generic. Each year the negotiations are characterised by the same tedious bickering, the same dragging of heels, and the same proactive vandalism of the process by big polluting countries.
However, when the COP comes to Glasgow next year, it will be coming to a very specific place. From a UK point of view, the COP taking place in Glasgow is a complex predicament. Scotland remains part of the United Kingdom, but has its own government with extensive powers in key areas, including over many aspects of climate change policy. COP26 will therefore be a UK Government event, taking place in a part of the country that develops its own, more ambitious, climate policy. Furthermore, just as we don’t know if the UK will still be in the EU this time next year, there will be questions asked about Scotland remaining in the UK, as its government seeks legislation for a second referendum on Scottish Independence.
But aside from the national question, COP26 next year will also be taking place in a city with its own unique story to tell — a story which can help shape our understanding of the crisis we are in. Glasgow was founded in the 6th century, and takes its name from the Gaelic for “dear green place”. In later years, this “dear green place” was transformed into an industrial heartland. It became a centre of shipbuilding in the 15th century, when vessels from Glasgow were used to transport slaves across the globe and plunder far-away territories. In the 19th century, Glasgow became the heart of the industrial revolution, processing the raw materials brought back by ships from the Caribbean and from plantations in the US.
However, the wealth that the ships brought back to Glasgow did not go toward feeding the people who built them. In a time where Glasgow was known as the “second city of the British Empire,” it was also a host to slums, extreme poverty, and an ever-more furious working-class. In the 20th century, Glasgow became a site of resistance, with its people leading movements that would transform workers’ rights across the country. Many of the same people would go on to travel to Spain to fight fascism in the 1930s, and those who returned brought with them a deep sense of local and global justice.
This history of Glasgow simmers beneath its streets, and when the COP comes to the city, it will bubble up over the surface. Questions of colonialism, of its legacy of slavery, of industry, of strikes, and of social movements, will frame our discussions when the world comes to town on equity, loss & damage, human rights, climate justice and the just transition.
Glasgow’s story is a common story to many cities in the ‘developed’ world. It encapsulates the historical exploitation which shaped our current crisis, the local exploitation that fuels global exploitation, and the need for urgent transformation to repent for the sins of the past. It also reminds us of the change that can occur when the oppressed refuse to take it any longer. When the COP comes to Glasgow next year, its people will be ready for them, and will let the negotiators know exactly where they are. 
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Bending the Curve for a Better World: Why Distant “Net” Zero Targets Are Not Enough to Drive the Near-Term Action We Need

ECO is in need of a good glass of Spanish wine over which to reflect on COP25’s failure to match the urgent demands for climate action being made by our fellow citizens back home. The emphasis now shifts to real climate action at the national level — where it really counts.
“Net zero” targets have become a rather fashionable way for countries to claim that they are acting on climate change. But this simplistic phrase ignores important components, and allows for obfuscation and delay.
Let’s be honest: there is hardly any carbon budget left to stay under 1.5°C of warming, which means there can be no waiting around for future governments to have the courage to act. Certain countries’ targets of “net zero by 2050” are woefully insufficient. ECO reminds parties that at this rate, the planet, and its people — including our adorable future grandchildren — will be long-fried by 2050.
Emissions must decrease as fast as conceivably possible in rich countries, including a complete phase-out of fossil energy. Action needs to start now, and strong near-term targets for 2025 and 2030 are needed to make sure that any target is effective. We need to not so much bend, as smash the curve for steep reductions in wealthy and high-polluting countries.
This must be accompanied by similarly unprecedented emission reductions in poorer countries – but this will require and be enabled only through a huge scaling up of support from richer countries. At the same time, with adequate and economy-wide Just Transition strategies and policies, countries must ensure that the poorer parts of their societies do not pay for this necessary transformation. Social justice is a fundamental precondition for climate justice.
It also makes sense to have separate targets for reductions of the emissions that are currently being released, vs targets for CO2 that is removed from the atmosphere using so called “negative emissions” approaches, so as to avoid obfuscating mediocre emissions reductions through “net-zero”.
The longer we wait to act, the more cumulative emissions will be released, and the hotter the planet will get. Clearly, we don’t want to rely on risky technologies such as BECCS to fix the problem, and neither can we rely on teleportation or unicorns to save us. So we’re going to have to do it ourselves, with the knowledge and technologies we have now. We need to reduce consumption, consume resources efficiently, and produce them sustainably.
When ECO thinks about the opportunity to go home and build a better world of renewable energy access for all, ecological food systems, sustainable transport and biodiverse ecosystems — all of which enable social opportunity AND help the climate — she gets pretty inspired! We look forward to hearing all about your ambitious plans for transformational pathways at COP26 next year!
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Drawing Parallels at the Latin COP

Negotiations are falling apart, in a stark reflection of the political climate in Latin America. After several attempts at holding COP25 in Latin America, we have found ourselves back in Europe, hosting a Latin American Presidency in Spain.
 The agenda has polarized talks on common time frames, the transparency framework, and adaptation. Progress in the negotiations on market mechanisms has so far also been incredibly disappointing. 
Have Parties not learned enough from the failure of market responses in Chile to block loopholes?
Going into the final plenary, it seems progress on any of these crucial points is entirely out of the question; countries have acted entirely in their own interests, remaining deaf and unresponsive to the calls for action coming from outside.
The parallels are eerie between the social injustices and oppression of civil society happening in many parts of Latin America and the shrinking space for civil society found here at this COP. The voices of minorities, those who are most affected, least responsible, and fighting for their future, are being ignored, both in Latin American and in this COP.
The Escazú Agreement, which will provide the tools for establishing and protecting a dignified and sustainable environment and provide agency to disadvantaged Latin American communities, also gained little traction in Madrid. This agreement is crucial to protecting those who are fighting to protect our future, yet governments have been slow to sign on and ratify it. Instead, we hear, too frequently, reports of environmental defenders being threatened, harassed or even worse.
So far, this Latin American COP has ECO feeling left out in the cold. With so much at stake, ECO questions if a comprehensive and ambitious COP decision is too much to expect of a country so socially and politically fragmented? However, for all its history of turmoil, Latin America also has a history of resilience; ECO will reserve its final judgement until plenary closes tonight.
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